Approach to the knowledge of preservation of pleistocenic bone: The case of a Gomphothere cranium from the site of Tepeticpac, Tlaxcala, Mexico

  • Luisa Straulino Coordinación Nacional de Conservación del Patrimonio cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Ex Convento de Churubusco, Xicoténcatl y General Anaya s/n, Col. San Diego Churubusco, Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Luisa Mainou Coordinación Nacional de Conservación del Patrimonio cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Ex Convento de Churubusco, Xicoténcatl y General Anaya s/n, Col. San Diego Churubusco, Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Teresa Pi Laboratorio Nacional de Geoquímica y Mineralogía (LANGEM), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Sergey Sedov Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Aurelio López-Corral Centro INAH Tlaxcala, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Avenida Diego Muñoz Camargo No. 26, Colonia Centro, C.P. 90000, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico.
  • Ramón Santacruz-Cano Centro INAH Tlaxcala, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Avenida Diego Muñoz Camargo No. 26, Colonia Centro, C.P. 90000, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico.
  • Alonso Gabriel Vicencio-Castellanos Centro INAH Tlaxcala, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Avenida Diego Muñoz Camargo No. 26, Colonia Centro, C.P. 90000, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico.
Keywords: Paleohistology, bone, gomphotere, mineralization, X-ray diffraction, petrography

Abstract

An almost complete cranium of a gomphoterium found in Tepeticpac, Tlaxcala, was analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Petrography and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to stablish the transformations of the bone during its burial. The analyses assessed that the bone mineral (bioapatite) had suffered modifications in mineral composition, “crystallinity index”, cell parameters and CO2 content. However, the paleohistological structure of the bone was not significantly affected, although evidence of microbial attack was found in the bone surfaces. The filling minerals of bone macro and micro porosity were also analyzed; its main filling minerals are calcite (micrite and sparite), clays, and minerals of volcanic origin.

Published
2019-07-28
Section
Articles